Monday, March 16, 2020
Custer's Last Stand essays The name of "Custer" has become a byword. Today, when someone is involved in seemingly hopeless circumstances references to "Custer's Last Stand" might be made. On the surface, and even after some investigation, the case could be made that Custer was the victim of his own mistakes and recklessness. This case cannot be confirmed, only opinionized and acknowledged to be a possible conclusion. The case made here is one which notes that the men under Custer's command on June 25, 1876 failed him, and in failing him certainly doomed him. The purpose of this essay is not to slander the Indian nations with whom Custer fought against that day. The Sioux and other tribes were just defending there home. Treaties had been made with these Indians granting them the Dakota Territory and the region of the Black Hills forever. Treaties that white men drew up and signed gave them this land. In 1874 Gold was discovered in the region of the Black Hills, on Indian land. With the discovery of Gold, treaties were thrown aside and forgotten. The Indian nations whom Custer fought in 1876 were fighting to protect their lives, their families, and their land. The Government had indeed directed that all Indians move onto reservations by Jan. 31, 1876, or be deemed hostile. In their remote and scattered winter camps, it was likely that many Indian tribes did not receive these orders and could not have reached the government agencies with their women and children if they had. Custer and the United States Government were not in the right on June 25, 1876. Indeed, the whole Indian policy is a dark page in any history. If you read any sources on Custer he was either loved or hated. The governing powers in 1876 were no exception to this. General Sheridan admired Custer. President Grant, Benteen, and Reno did not. President Grant did not like Custer because Custer testified, in a court, to the corruption withi...
Saturday, February 29, 2020
A perfect response to an Imperfect storm Twelve days. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how long it took for Mississippi power to restore electric power to the heavily damaged areas of southern Mississippi after hurricane Katrina slammed into the Mississippi gulf coast on august 29, 2005, with 145-mph winds and pounding rain. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s remarkable, given the devastation that news photos and television newscasts so graphically displayed. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s something that even the federal and state governments could not accomplish. How bad was the damage company employees dealt with? One hundred percent of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s customers were without power.Sixty-five percent of its transmission and distribution facilities were destroyed. And yet, this organization of 1,250 employees did what it had to do, despite the horrible circumstances and despite the fact that more than half of its employees suffered substantial damage to their own homes. It speaks volumes about the cultural climate that the managers of Mississippi power had created. As a corporate subsidiary of utility holding company southern company, Mississippi power provides electric services to more than 190,000 customers in the Magnolia state. When Hurricane Katrina turned toward Mississippi. Managers at Mississippi power swung into action with a swift and ambitious disaster plan. After Katrina land fall, Mississippi power management team responded,Ã¢â¬ with a style designed for speed and flexibility, forget thing done amid confusion and chaos. Ã¢â¬ David Ratcliffe, senior executive of southern company said, Ã¢â¬Å"I could not be prouder of our response. Ã¢â¬ What factors led to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to respond as efficiently and effectively and effectively as it did?Imagine this is your second day at work as a manager supervising a team of financial analysts in the major technology corporation. Your boss the chief financial officer, calls you in and asks you to have your team find Ã¢â¬Å"creativeÃ¢â¬ ways of improving sales figures. Look back at the framework in exhibit 3-8 and think about the potential consequences as you decide which of the following option you will choose, and why. Option A: Call a meeting of your analyst team and present the bossÃ¢â¬â¢s request as a hypothetical challenge designed to sharpen their skills. Present the results to your boss without telling the team. Option B:Work by yourself to dream up a few outlandish, impractical ideas so you can avoid being seen as someone who is not committed to your companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Option C: Privately discuss the situation with the human resources manager who hired you (or another manager you trust) and explain why you are concerned about your bossÃ¢â¬â¢s request. One key element is the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s can-do organizational culture, which is evidenced by important values inscribed on employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ identification tags Ã¢â¬Å"Unquestionable trust, Superior performance, Total commitment. Ã¢â¬ Because the values were visible daily, employees knew their importance.They knew what was expected of them, in a disaster response or in just doing their everyday work. In addition, through employee training and managerial example, the organization had, Ã¢â¬Å"steeped its cultureÃ¢â¬ in Stephen coveyÃ¢â¬â¢s book, The 7 habits of highly effective people. (The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s training building Ã¢â¬â the covey Center-flooded during the storm. ) These ingrained habits-be proactive; begin with the end in mind; put first things first; think win/win; seek first to understand then to be understand; synergize; and sharpen the saw-also guided employee decisions and actions.Another important element in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s successful post-storm response was the clear lines of responsibility of the 20 Ã¢â¬Å"storm directors,Ã¢â¬ who had clear responsibility and authority for whatever task they had been assigned. These directors had the power to do what needed to be done backed by unquestionable trust from their bosses. Said one, Ã¢â¬ I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to ask permission. Ã¢â¬ Finally the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s decentralized decision making approach to contribute to the way in which employees were able to accomplish what they did. The old approach of responding to a disaster with topdown decision making had been replaced by decision making being push further down to the electrical substation level, a distribution point that serves some 5,000 people. Crews working to restore power reported to these substations and had a simple mission Ã¢â¬â get the power back on, Ã¢â¬Å"Even out Ã¢â¬âof Ã¢â¬âstate line crews, hired on contract and working unsupervised, were empowered to engineer to there solutions. Ã¢â¬ What the crews often did to Ã¢â¬Å"get the power back onÃ¢â¬ was quite innovative and entrepreneurial.Would these stack holder change if there was a disaster to which company had to respond? Answer: Stakeholders are the groups and individuals who affect and are affected by the achievement of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission, goals and strategies. Providing electric services to more than 190,000 customers in the Magnolia state is important to Mississippi power and stake holder. To provide electric services, to more than 190,000 customers in the Magnolia state; trust among stack holder is very important. Unquestionable trust, Superior performance, Total commitment will be the concern among the stake holders. Another important element is, clear lines of responsibility in case of stake holder. Yes, these stack holder change if there was a disaster to which the company had to respond. The reason behind it is, they learn a lot during the disaster and learn the importance of togetherness and planning. 2. What could other organization learn from Mississippi power about the importance of organization culture? Answer: There are so many lessons learned from the case of Mississippi power to all the organizations and individuals as well. The important learned is, to maintain the good culture of organization.Along with that, respect each other is one of the aspect all the organization can learn from Mississippi power case. Since, values were visible daily, employees knew their importance. Another point is, we should be ready with the disaster recovery plan and we should keep on working on that. One more point the other organization learn is, decentralized decision making approach to contribute to the way in which employees were able to accomplish what they did. Avoid responding to disaster with top down- decision making, instead; decision making being push further down ground level.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Environmental justice - Essay Example otection Agency of the United States terms environmental justice as the meaningful involvement and fair treatment of all individuals regardless of income, national origin, sex, color, or race with respect to the progression, enactment and application of environmental policies, regulations, and laws. Examples of environmental justice burdens can be air and water pollution, insufficient access to nutritious food, and inadequate transportation, among others (Schlosberg, 7). According to the EUREKALERT!, (1), this burdens all over the world have been documented in an Environmental Justice Atlas by the Environmental Justice Organizations, Liabilities, and Trade (EJOLT) led by the European Union. The aim of the atlas is to convey information from the records of the EJOLT to the public. This will upsurge the understanding of what causes this environmental issues and how material policies and demands from possible hot spots for future issues (Guardian, 1). In North America, biodiversity conservation issues are common affecting the animals, plants, and the rainforests, among others. The misuse of resources causes these issues through human activities hence leading to habitat destruction, ocean acidification, among others. The movement advocating for change in North America is the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) (Bickerstaff and Agyeman, 800). In South America, there are water management issues that are caused by many industries, comprising recreation, manufacturing, mining, agriculture, among others. These industries have led to water and air pollution hence decreasing the amount of quality water available. The group fighting for change is the Latin American environmental justice movement (Alazraque, 122). The connection between these two issues is that biodiversity issues bring many effects including issues in water management issues as seen in South America. Environmental justice movements provide statistical facts on how different actions are affecting
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Financial accounting - Essay Example It is headquartered at Dearborn, Michigan, USA. The company has remained under family ownership ever since (Bender, Slade, and Thorpe, 2009, p. 4). Ford Motor conducts its business in two different business segments namely, automotives and financial services sector. This report entails about the assets utilised by the company to carry on its business activities. This report also analyses the technological and other means through which the organisation generates revenue out of its assets. The process of asset valuation used by Ford Motors has also been included in this study. Finally the various sources of funds utilised by the company to conduct its operational activities have been discussed in this study. Assets The consolidated balance sheet of Ford Motors Company includes various types of assets owned by the company. Some of those items are: cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, finance receivables, investment in operating leases, inventories, property, deferred income taxes and intangible assets. As at 31 December 2011, Ford Motors had $18,618 million as marketable securities (Ford Motor Co., 2012). Marketable securities are a form of assets which helps in storing excess cash that can help to generate return for the company (Fabozzi, and Peterson, 2003, p. 645). Ford Motors is found to have invested in the marketable securities of automotive and financial services sector. Total assets of the company in the form of investment in operating leases were $12,838 million as on 31 December 2012 (Ford Motor Co., 2012, p. FS-4). Those operating leases mostly consisted of lease contracts for vehicles with all its different types of existing customers. Accounts receivables are mainly in the form of finance receivables which amounted to $69,976 million as at 31 December 2011. Other receivables amounted to $8,565 million (Ford Motor Co., 2012, FS-4). The finance receivables correspond to the automotive and financial services sector. The notes receivables in the automotive sector are primarily related to the purpose of restructuring the businesses of the company and loans with the suppliers. Ford Motor Credit Company LLC which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Ford motors offers different types of automotive financing products all around the world. Ford Credit's business activities mostly consist of supporting its dealers and financing the vehicles. This results in a large portfolio of leases and finance receivables for the company. The total inventories of the company as at 31 December 2011 were $5,901 million (Ford Motor Co., 2012, FS-4). The inventories of the company consisted of raw materials, work-in-process and supplies which amounted to $2,847 million at the end of the financial year 2011. The finished products amounted to $3,982 million and total inventory is calculated as $5,901 million after adjusting on the basis of (Last in First Out) LIFO. Thus the inventories of Ford motors are lean in nature because they follow the build t o order strategy (Ford Motor Co., 2012, FS-38). The inventories of the company which is primarily the service part obsolescence amounted to an ending balance of $249 million as at 31 December 2012 (Ford Motor Co., 2012, p. FSS-1). Use of Technology and Revenue Generation Revenues are recognised by the companies in United States mostly in accordance with the US GAAP (Nikolai, Bazley, and Jones, 2009, p. 931). Revenues from the automotive business segment of Ford Motors are generally generated through sales of automobiles and its accessories. Revenues are recorded in the books of account of the company only after the risks and rewards of ownership related to the products are completely transferred to its
Friday, January 24, 2020
Mathematical Models of Spacetime in Contemporary Physics and Essential Issues of the Ontology of Spacetime :: Physics Papers
Mathematical Models of Spacetime in Contemporary Physics and Essential Issues of the Ontology of Spacetime ABSTRACT: The general theory of relativity and field theory of matter generate an interesting ontology of space-time and, generally, of nature. It is a monistic, anti-atomistic and geometrized ontology Ã¢â¬â in which the substance is the metric field Ã¢â¬â to which all physical events are reducible. Such ontology refers to the Cartesian definition of corporeality and to Plato's ontology of nature presented in the Timaeus. This ontology provides a solution to the dispute between Clark and Leibniz on the issue of the ontological independence of space-time from distribution of events. However, mathematical models of space-time in physics do not solve the problem of the difference between time and space dimensions (invariance of equations with regard to the inversion of time arrow). Recent research on space-time singularities and asymmetrical in time quantum theory of gravitation will perhaps allow for the solution of this problem based on the structure of space-time and not merely on thermodynamics. Since the General Theory of Relativity is a fundamental model of spacetime, most often used as a starting point for a physicists' research, I will begin my analysis with an attempt to formulate the consequences of the GTR for spacetime ontology and, generally, ontology of nature. The preliminary remark, however, has epistemological character. The formulation of the GTR resulted in definite fall of a dogmatic thesis of distinguished value of the 3-dimensional Euclidean geometry, as the only geometrical structure, adequate for a description of nature. This thesis was formulated explicitly by Kant, who considered this structure to be apriori form of inspection, and as such it was to validate the science. Kant's epistemology was created mainly to validate science, whose best developed part was embodied in the classical mechanics. However, the attitude of the authors of the field theory of matter towards Kant's epistemology was not negative at all, which can be proved by the words of Weyl , who, although confessed that in himself a philosopher had been dominated by a mathematician, began his work Space, Time, Matter with philosophical considerations devoted to the question of time and space, considerations comparable to those of Kant. The formulation of the General Theory of Relativity was of major importance for the spacetime ontology, mainly because it ended the famous debate between Clarke and Leibniz concerning the ontological status of spacetime. In this debate Clarke defended the Newton's position in which he emphasized ontological independence of time and space with regard to physical events.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Marketing Theory Commodity School 01. 11. 2012 [Sirket ad? n? yaz? n] Bahcesehir University, MA Marketing What is commodity school and what are strengths and weaknesses of that thought? Marketing theory has been discussed over years. Many theorists had tried to explain marketing thought since it was a separate field apart from economics. In order to indicate progress of the theory; Sheth, Gardner and Garret in the book of Marketing Theory Evolution and Evaluation compiled all schools of marketing.They also argue how successful each thought is while developing, implementing and distributing of those schools. On that paper, it will be tried to analyze what commodity school is and what its strengths and weaknesses are according to Sheth, Gardner and Garret. Schools of thoughts are formed by two dimensions of a matrix. One perspective is interactive-noninteractive while the other is economic-noneconomic. In first dimension, for the noninteractive schools selling is the essential concept whereas relationship is main source for interactive schools.In second dimension, for economic classification, the focus is economic variables such as production and distribution efficiency, prices of inputs and outputs, and consumer income levels. At the other dimension, participants of marketing activities cannot be explained by sole economic influence. It can be clarified by social and psychological factors that may affect the behaviour of marketing actors. With two dimensions of that matrix, commodity school is one concept of noninteractive and economic approach.The commodity school concentrated on the physical characteristics of products and the related consumer buying habits for different categories of products. The most influential proponent of that school (Melvin Copeland) defined commodities as convenience goods, shopping goods and speciality goods based on durability. Copeland stated that convenience goods were those customarily purchased at easily accessible stores, when h e recognized the want, the demand became clearly defined in his mind.Copeland defined shopping goods as the ones the consumer desires to compare price, quality, style etc at the time of purchase. Final part of his classification is the ones that have some particular attraction for the consumer, other than price, which induces him to put forth special effort to visit the store. For speciality goods, brands are essential. CopelandÃ¢â¬â¢s theory can be seen most inspiring theory for commodity school of thought. Theorists after CopelandÃ¢â¬â¢s had tried to develop the definition of categories.One of them was Leo Aspinwall who launched a classification system using five characteristics to differentiate three types of goods. Aspinwall named his three categories the red goods, the orange goods and the yellow goods based on replacement rate, gross margin, adjustment, time of consumption and searching time. Richard Holton asserted that CopelandÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of the categories of co nvenience goods, shopping goods and speciality goods needed to be revised. He emphasized that convenience goods and shopping goods can be defined accurately only from standpoint of the individual consumer.According to Holton, for the individual consumer, convenience goods are those goods for which the probable gain from making price and quality comparison among alternative sellers is thought to be small relative to the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s appraisal of the searching costs in terms of time, money and effort. Shopping goods then, are for the individual consumer, those goods for which the probable gain from making prices and quality comparisons among alternative sellers is thought to be large relative to the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s appraisal of the searching costs in terms of time, money and effort.However David Luck criticized HoltonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory in terms of dynamics of consumer behaviour. He claimed that Holton excluded the speciality type of good from marketing theory. The next theorist B ucklin tried to explain the distinction between shopping goods and non shopping goods as a first point of differentiation. He classified that shopping goods are the goods whose suitability is determined through search before the consumer commits himself to each purchase. He subdivided non shopping goods as convenience goods and speciality goods based on their accessibility to substitutes.Until Kaish emphasis, commodity school could not highlight psychological side of consumers. Kaish was the prior emphasis on the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s shopping effort. He assured that consumers had different pre purchase anxiety level for convenience goods, shopping goods and speciality goods. To him, as goods complexity increases pre purchase anxiety level also rises as well. After all those contributions, Ramond and Assael asserted that firstly, product as a relation between physical ingredients and psychological responses; secondly, the product in terms of consumer actions and channel response must be defined.In addition, Enis and Roering asserted that a classification scheme that incorporates both the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s and the sellerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective holds the greatest promise for illuminating the exchange process. Finally, Murphy and Enis developed four commodity categories as convenience, preference, shopping and speciality products based on effort and risk dimension Enis-Roerig Commodity Classification System Buyer Expected Effort / Marketing Mix Differentiation HIGH Buyer Perceived Risk/ Product Differentiation LOWshoppingspecialityHIGHconveniencepreferenceLOWThe commodity school has revolted during the process that is summarized above. Many explanations and opinions are developed by the theorists. However, there is still unanimity for that school. Commodity categories are still tried to be defined clearly. It is still a dilemma if definitions should be physical properties of the good or on the behaviour of the consumers. If latter one is preferable, should the focus be on the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s mental effort or on his physical effort. In addition, the specification of hypotheses becomes contingent upon the diversity and individual differences among consumers.Beyond the potential variability among consumers, there is also the question of the possible change in any one consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour over time. Another point that cannot be clarified is how shopping effort is measured and, limited and considerable levels of the shopping are distinguished in terms of operational efficiency. The points that cannot be clarified during evolution process for commodity school are listed. Although there are dilemmas about structure, specification and testability, the commodity school enjoys some easiness of theory implementation.Firstly, a researcher interested in commodity school could develop empirical simulations for the goods categories. Thanks to this simulation, he can modify marketing mix for a test product to determine whether market performance for the pr oduct could be enhanced. Secondly; commodity school is valid for consumer goods, industrial goods, services and social goods. In addition, it is adaptable in global environment thanks to consumer classification based on diverse culture, psychology etc. Also, the commodity school cooperates with new technology.At last but not least, specific forms of distribution and promotion should accompany various types of goods. To sum up, commodity school is the one that many theorists have tried to structure and strengthen it. Physical characteristic and consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological tendencies have been main factors that theorists have considered. Although it has dilemmas about structure, specification and testability, it can succeed to develop empirical supports, to enrich product categorization and to simplify in communicating and implementing the theory. With the contribution of each theorist, it can be seen as one of the most robust school of marketing.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Day after day, millions of inmates are sitting in jail doing nothing productive during their sentence. They only plunge deeper into their criminal ways; they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t given any methods to truly rehabilitate themselves or prepare themselves to reenter into society. We are paying to house these inmates every year, and all they are doing is repeatedly coming back. The United States has the highest population of incarcerated people. Unfortunately, we have begun to spend more on the prison system than the education of our children. In order to be fiscally responsible, it is important that we change the way that prisons are run so we can decrease the amount of recidivism and make sure that those inmates are fully prepared to reenter into society and have the confidence to achieve their new goals. Prisons were created to keep those who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to function as law abiding citizens out of society. There are some people who should be put in jail for their crimes. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re there because of a mistake they made, but they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be defined by their past mistakes for their whole lives. But where is the line drawn on who is a danger to society and who has needs real medical help for their mental issues. The President of Stop the Crime, Charles J. Kehoe argues that, Ã¢â¬Å"the four main purposes of a prison are as follows; provide retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, and rehabilitationÃ¢â¬ . Retribution is given because they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t cause any more harm to this society. Their freedom is takenShow MoreRelatedAmerica s Public School System918 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s public school system is failing, teachers are not being paid enough. Children are not being equipped with the tools they need at home to thrive in school. I must ask the question, is the public school system tearing our youth apart? The post below shows two pencils broken, one at the point and one at the eraser. When you write anything down on a piece of paper you are creating something new, when you erase you are taking something away. We send our children to school with hopes theyRead MoreCriminalization at School: Zero-Tolerance Discipline Policies Might Be Damaging to Students1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesreferred to by many education scholars and activists as the Ã¢â¬Å"school-to-prison pipeline,Ã¢â¬ a term that refers to Ã¢â¬Å"the policies and practices that push our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s schoolchildren, especially our most at-risk children, out of classrooms and into the juvenile and criminal justice systemsÃ¢â¬ (ACLU 2013). The School-to-Prison Pipeline is o ne of the most urgent challenges in education today. 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To understandRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Mass Incarceration1542 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Mass Incarceration is a growing dilemma in the United States that populates our prisons at an alarming rate. Michelle Alexander is a professor at Ohio State University and a graduate of Stanford law school. She states in her award winning book, The new Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness Ã¢â¬Å"In less than thirty years, the U.S. penal population exploded from around 300,000 to more than 2 millionÃ¢â¬ (Alexander, 6). These young men and women are unable to afford a decent lawyer becauseRead MoreSchool Dropout Problem in America Essay1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEducation is very important in our life. It measures our life chances and the window of opportunity to success in the society. Our education institution not only teaches us how to write, read and communicate thoroughly, but also social skills that enable us to become a productive citizen of society. The U.S. have taken enormous pride of its ability to provide top-notch education and freedom of its access . Its the promise of American public education: no matter who you are or where you come fromRead MoreRethinking The Growing Female Prison System1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWomenÃ¢â¬â¢s population in the prison system is growing vastly, and continues to grow. Julie Ajinkya (March 8, 2013). Rethinking How to Address the Growing Female Prison Population. Retrieved from www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/news. According to the center for progress from the years 2000 through 2009 the number of women incarcerated in state or federal prisons rose by 21.6 percent in comparison to 15.6 percent increase for men. Majority of the women in the prison system struggle with, mental illnessRead MoreAmazing Grace by Jonathan Kozol690 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesabout, or hear in the news. 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Many people have offered theories as to what should be done with the prison system, the extremes